— Information Sheet from the Colorado Department of Agriculture
Scientific Overviews (Biology, Taxonomy and Control)
— Nowierski and Pemberton. 2002. Excerpted from Van Driesche, R., et al., Biological Control of Invasive Plants in the Eastern United States, USDA Forest Service Publication FHTET-2002-04.
— Excerpted from DiTomosato, et al. 2013. Weed Control in Natural Areas in the Western United States, Berkeley: University of California Weed Research & Information Center.
— Goodwin, et al. Montana State University Bulletin, 2001.
— St. John and Tilley. 2014. USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service, Plant Materials Center. Aberdeen, Idaho 83210
— Bourchier, et al. 2006. USDA Forest Service Publication FHTET-2005-07.
— Lym. 2013. North Dakota State University Extension Service.
— Science Findings 146, September 2012. Pacific Northwest Research Station, USDA Forest Service.
— Beef Insider, March 2018.
— Kuhns. Masters Thesis Defense Seminar (video), April 9, 2021.